Tuesday, 31 March 2015

Complete information on India's second Akula SSN K-322 Kashalot & Analysis Part1

Multipurpose nuclear submarine. Development of PLA pr.971 started SKB-143 "Malachite" (Leningrad, Chief Designer Georgy Chernyshev, from August 1976 after 1997 - Yu.I.Farafontov) TTZ 1972 on "the development of a large multi-purpose nuclear submarine 3rd generation "as a counterpart to the PLA pr.945 the replacement of titanium alloys in the construction of steel. The project used to study low-noise submarines pr.991 and pr.958. A brief preliminary design (preliminary design) developed by the beginning of 1976. 

In the development of the technical project, on which work began on the joint decision of SMEs and the Navy, dated 27 July 1976 and participated Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute. Academician AN Krylov (especially in terms of noise reduction PLA). Group chief designer formed in August 1976 

Design : Engineering design of the boat is designed from September 1976 to May 1977 One of the main problems that faced by developers - keeping SSN within tonnage stated in conceptual design. Technical project reviewed 1 Central Research Institute of the USSR Ministry of Defense (shipbuilding) in June 1977 and approved September 13, 1977 with the proviso that in the process of development and construction drawings necessary to provide even greater noise reduction, placing launchers GSPC, CBRC accommodation with the possibility of applying for coastal targets. After receiving the information about innovations on American submarines type Los-Angeles, which were expressed in the SAS installation with digital signal processing, which reduces the effect of the intrinsic noise of the PLA, as well as taking into account the wishes of the leadership of the Navy submarines equipped CBRC " Garnet "(Resolution of the USSR Council of 26 May 1978), the project was redesigned for the installation of additional HOOK "Skate 3", which required modification of the body. The project commissioned in 1980

PLA Chakra / K-152 "Nerpa" pr.971I - Improved AKULA on the way to India, the end of March 2012 ( http://www.militaryphotos.net ).

One of the early versions pr.971 ( http://forums.airbase.ru )

Production : Pre-production series boats pr.971 at a shipyard in Komsomolsk-on-Amur (plant №199) was carried out from 1978 Head PLA K-284:
- lies at the end of 1980
- the first piece of equipment installed in a robust housing in June 1983
- BS board set 6 November 1983
- official date listed bookmarks November 11, 1983
- hull assembly completed in February 1984
- the submarine K-284 is derived from a plant in the transport and release floating dock "Cupid" July 16, 1984
- the beginning of transportation submarine floating dock on the acceptance base in p.Bolshoy Stone - October 16, 1984
- Launching of the floating dock in the bay Chikhacheva, PPU start - up to 25 October 1984
- came under its own power for acceptance the base of the plant in p.Bolshoy Stone and was planted on a bank (were clogged with mud circulation route) October 25, 1984
- two unsuccessful factory stage sea trials - because of absenteeism foam on the power of more than 50% (due to clogged circulation routes) - from December 7, 1984
- cleaning circulation routes - 7-20 December 1984
- the third stage of a successful factory navigation test - before the end of December 1984
- the signing of the act of receiving the submarine K-284 - December 30, 1984 (stating list of works carried on 1985) 

Testing and adoption . Factory testing of K-284 launched December 7, 1984 and officially submarine K-284 Navy put the signing of the Act of acceptance December 30, 1984 after which, based in p.Bolshoy Stone launched a fine-tuning equipment and testing systems. Acoustic finishing submarine K-284 is made ​​in the period from 1985 to 1987 Finishing and painting - 1986 Since 1986 the head submarine provided the same test series PL pr.971. Sea trials conducted in 1986-1987 gg The first launches of CBRC "Garnet" - January 1987 Checking technology and the complexity of navigation and dock repairs carried out in 1987 and in 1989 the SJC and of the weapons systems were finished and put into operation in 1988, the first dive at extreme depths held July 1, 1989 At this point, the submarine K-284 took more than 50,000 miles and had time between the basic mechanisms of approximately 10,000 hours. Test all systems PLA completed only in 1990


One of the first photos of PLA pr.971 AKULA (probably K-284 "Shark") published in the Western media (Soviet Military Power 1987. USA. 1987).
One of the first photos of PLA pr.971 AKULA (probably K-284 "Shark") published in the Western media (photo US NAVY, 1980).

Parent PLA K-284 "Shark" pr.971 AKULA on sludge in Pavlovsk Bay, Pacific Fleet, November 1996 (photo V.Lemonosa,http://www.podlodka.su )

The second in a series of PLA pr.971 AKULA - K-263 "Barnaul" / "Dolphin" in the 45th Division of the Pacific Fleet submarines (soot MI, chart the road "Bars". Website http://shturman.vlms.ru )
PLA pr.971 built in Komsomolsk-on-Amur (plant №199, from 1983 to the present) and in Severodvinsk ("Sevmash" - plant №402, shop №50, from 1985 to 2001 ), and the original plan was planned to build 25 submarines (SSNs were laid 20). By default, the PLA pr.971.

Roll-out of the shop in the "Sevmash" PLA pr.971 K-480 "Bars", 16 April 1988 (panorama shots of the documentary "The impact force. Underwater Hunter", ORT, 2007-2008)

PLA "Sperm Whale" K-322, in October 1993, the Pacific Ocean (Photo US NAVY)

The design of the submarine - double-hulled, tail empennage fairing with a towed sonar on the top upright handlebars. The robust housing made ​​of steel of a new brand with a yield strength of 100 kgf / mm (thickness up to 48 mm, processing presses FUJICAR) and is divided into 7 sections. During the design phase problem was solved significantly (about 5 times in comparison with PLA 2nd generation) noise reduction using low-noise design study PLA pr.991. Assembling the case is made ​​by the block method: PLA equipment installed inside the enclosure for shock absorbers and mnogopalubnyh blocks of depreciation ("whatnot") that are part of a two-stage system obschekonstruktsionnoy the depreciation (each block is isolated from the rubber-pneumatic shock absorbers). PLA body is covered with a rubber coating protivogidroakusticheskim. Inside and outside the pressure hull submarines used vibration-absorbing and vibration insulation coating. According to some reports using active means of reducing noise. PLA equipment meets the standards of vibro-acoustic characteristics of the VAC-74. On PLA improved habitability conditions of the crew.

External devices and layout of PLA pr.971 AKULA. Obozracheno numbers: 1 - starters GSPC, 2 - alarm pop-up buoy, 3 - antenna Sox 4 - sonar, 5 - periscope 6 - VSC unit - pop rescue chamber, 7 - antenna radar, direction finder and communications, 8 - exhaust diesel, 9 - scuppers (openings in the outer hull) 10 - container towed sonar, 11 - the screw 12 - overflow, 13 - a cover of the auxiliary thruster screw column 14 - fence fittings such as "Fin", 15 - drain holes, 16 - horizontal steering wheel, 17 - Cover torpedo tubes (http://defenceforumindia.com ).

The reactor compartment hull PLA was designed with an isolated location of the reactor and pump cubicle with biological protection. In the room were placed billboards second-tier power system PLA. Since PLA K-322 (serial №513) introduced 25 measures to reduce noise including amortized main bearing shaft line. Since PLA K-391 (serial №514) installed generators powder blowing tsictern main ballast. By starting with the PLA-391 is installed on PLA outboard fittings circulation tracks like "Fin" - a form of intake becomes flat rather than round in cross-section. Since PLA K-461 (zav.№831, Sevmash) and K-295 (zav.№ 517 SZLK) on 34 boats set new mechanism with the relevant rules of vibro-acoustic characteristics of the VAC-80. According to some reports on PLA pr.971 system is used on the boundary layer effects washer body of water in order to reduce resistance, which probably worked on the towing submarines etc. .1710 "Mackerel" (confirmation of this information is not available).

Assembly shop PLA pr.971 AKULA at the Amur Shipyard (Ships and destinies. Amur Shipbuilding Plant - 70 years. Khabarovsk "Amur lists", 2002)

Construction Corps of PLA pr.971 AKULA at the Amur Shipyard (Ships and destinies. Amur Shipbuilding Plant - 70 years. Khabarovsk "Amur lists", 2002)

One of the buildings PLA pr.971 AKULA manufacturing "Sevmash" (probably K-328 "Leopard" or later PLA,  http://forums.airbase.ru/ )

PLA K-461 "Wolf" pr.971, Gadjievo, December 2010 (photo - Rustem Adagamov, http://drugoi.livejournal.com/ ).
Engines :
- NPS with water-cooled thermal reactor VM-5 with a steam generating unit (PPU) OK-650M.01 (K-284 and the other PLA) with a capacity of 190 MW (based on the base model, OK-650.BZ). Two two-section of the steam generator. Designers PPU - Simon RI ,, Farafontov Yu, Bogdanovich VP, Rynska MV PPU is set to U-shaped cantilever beams embedded in the transverse bulkheads (including tank water protection). PPU was later used on submarines of other projects. PPU is equipped with an emergency battery-less cooldown with outboard titanium heat exchangers, light sealed tank water biological protection with the system of compensation.
- 1 x block-shaft steam turbine plant (STP) with GTZA OK-9M (in the first issue of PLA plant in Komsomolsk-on-Amur) and OK-9VM with improved power Amortization 43000-50000 hp (According to various estimates, the probability of 50,000 hp). At the head of PLA K-284 - OK PTU-9B. PTU is mounted on the intermediate frame amortized based on mezhotsechnye bulkhead with the removal of the main circulation pumps in adjacent compartments.
- 2 x thrusters submersible 2 speed electric motor propeller PG-160 (?) To 410 hp (370 hp dr.dannym). Located in advancing columns of OK-300 (chief designer - A.M.Kuzmin).

Retractable thruster spiral column OK-300 with electric submarines pr.971 AKULA (still from the documentary, http://forums.airbase.ru )
Movers - one shaft, one 7-bladed fixed pitch propeller with improved hydroacoustic characteristics and reduced speed. Stern bearing of the main shaft is equipped with a cooling system samoprotochnogo, which significantly reduces noise levels. Two reclining thrusters OK-300. Screws for pr.971 manufactured using purchased from Toshiba's bypassing restrictions Kokomo high-precision machine tools (used also for other projects PL 3rd generation). Nasal hydroplanes with flaps, pull-out. Cooling system with water intake to the central route (starting with K-391 type "Fin" - more efficient).

The main propulsion submarines pr.971 AKULA - 7-bladed propeller (left to right - one of the "Komsomol" buildings in the floating dock, and roll-out of PLA K-335 "Cheetah" with PO "Sevmash", all photos with http: // forums. airbase.ru  and from the film "Submarine Squadron" Sevmash ", 2006)

Screw PLA K-480 "Ak Bars" pr.971 installed as a monument about CA "star" in Severodvinsk. Edge vnta processed and differ from the original. September-October 2013 (photo - Oleg Kuleshov, http://kuleshovoleg.livejournal.com ).

Intakes circulation paths of the first body (left, K-480 "Leopard") and type "Fin" (right, all photos with http://forums.airbase.ru )
Energy - two turbogenerator AC OK-2 with a capacity of 3200 kW, two reversible DC-DC converter.
Backup power supply - two groups of lead-acid batteries, 2 x diesel generators DG-300 with 750 hp (At 1 x dr.dannym ASDG-800-1 or ASDG 1000 - possible. Subseries different on different diesel generators) with reversible converter, fuel tank - 10 days.
Since PLA K-391 are installed emergency electric power network, and starting PLA with K-461 (zav.№831, Sevmash) and K-295 (zav.№517, SZLK) installed outboard emergency power network.
Saving and life-support system - pop Rescue Chamber (ECC) - ECC unit - the development and analogue FAC PLA pr.705. On PLA K-152 "Nerpa" pr.971I installed WSS new design (see figure). Loch extinguishing system (anti-gas volume boat) with a working substance-fire-extinguishers Chladone 114b2 (freon). Rescue universal set of KSU-600N-4 for remote automatic release liferafts PSNL-20 (4 pcs, only PLA K-335 "Cheetah", the system is designed CDB "Lapis"). The system of air regeneration "Astra-3." The new combined system of electro-chemical air regeneration (EHRV) - from submarines K-461 (zav.№831, Sevmash) and K-295 (zav.№517, SZLK).

VSC unit - pop rescue chamber PLA pr.971I "Irbis" Improved AKULA K-152 "Nerpa" ( http://flickr.com ). Demonstration of the universal rescue complex KSU-600N-4 for the production of liferafts on submarines K-335 "Cheetah" ( http://www.gazeta.voenmeh.ru/ ).


TTX submarine :
The crew - 73 people (including 33 officers)

- 108.25 m (at TEHPROEKT May 1977)
- 110.3 m (AKULA, Improved AKULA)
- 113.3 m (AKULA-II / pr.971U and K-335 AKULA-III)
Width - 13,5-13,6 m
Width of Coarse horizontal handlebars - 15.4 m
Draft average - 9.68 m
diameter pressure hull (for example, the reactor compartment) - 10.9 m
Displacement above water:
- 7540 tons (for preliminary design TTZ)
- 7740 tons (by TEHPROEKT May 1977)
- 8140 tonnes (pr.971 AKULA, govt ON "Sevmash")
- 8470-8500 tons (according to various sources AKULA-II / K-335 AKULA-III)
Displacement underwater:
- 12770 tonnes (pr.971 AKULA, govt ON "Sevmash")
- 13400-13800 tons (according to various sources AKULA-II / K-335 AKULA-III)

Speed ​​surface speed:
- 10 kt
- 20 kt (according to Western sources)
- 11.6 kt by dr.dannym (including K-152 "Nerpa"?)
- 12 knots (pr.971U)
Submerged speed:
- 6-9 bonds (quiet running)
- 33 kt
- 35 kt (according to Western sources)
Submerged speed motors for thrusters - 5 kt
Immersion depth limit - 600 m
Immersion depth Working:
- 480 m (AKULA, Improved AKULA)
- 520 m (AKULA-II and including K-152 "Nerpa"?, But perhaps for all PLA project)

Autonomy - 100 days (reserves)
Noise and the detection range of PLA pr.971 for various fragmentary data:
- Maximum range of detection boats pr.971 HOOK AN / BQQ-5 (SSN Los-Angeles) - 10 km (1995 data, Jeremy Boord).
- When the speed of the 6-9 bonds of the first housing PLA pr.971 not detected by the PLO United States (1995 data, Jeremy Boord).
- Noise submarines K-284 at 12-15 dB or 4-4.5 times lower noise SSN, etc. .671RTM VICTOR-III (Jane's)
- Noise SSN-335 K below the noise level of K-284 3.5-fold (AP Alekseev, Samarkin LA)
- In the natural background in the 40-45 dB noise calm PL pr.971  was 60-70 dB - a series of submarine and measuring conditions are unknown, Kamchatka ( http://forums.airbase.ru ).
- At the same time the PLA pr.971 considered to be more noisy than PLA SeaWolf or Improved Los-Angeles (Unspecified). According to Western (1994) noise PLA pr.971 Improved AKULA at speeds of 5-7 bonds is similar to or below the noise Improved Los Angeles-(http://forums.airbase.ru ).
The estimated cost of PLA pr.971 - 1.55 bn. USD (in 1995 prices) 
4 x 650 mm nasal TA (65-76 ammo 12 torpedoes, rockets PLRK RPK-7 "Wind" )
4 x 533 mm nasal TA (28 torpedoes UGST ammunition, USET-80 et al., CBRC 3M10 "Garnet" or "Turquoise", rockets PLRK RPK-6 "Waterfall" ). PLA K-152 "Nerpa" pr.971I - 8 x 533 mm nasal TA
System of training TA "Grinda"
Ammunition - total - 40 torpedoes, rockets, torpedoes or mines samotransportiruyuschihsya. According to Soviet-American agreements in 1989 as part of an arms ammunition shall not apply with nuclear warheads. On one of the submarines were tested Plourac'h "Splash" (not confirmed data less).
By starting with the PLA-391 (zav.№514) pr.971 / 09710 AKULA boats set 6 x 533 mm disposable non-rechargeable launchers REPS-324 "barrier" for running the sonar counter, located in the superstructure (since PLA K 391 - factory №514) - ie part AKULA, Improved AKULA, AKULA-II and AKULA-III, except K-152 "Nerpa"). Ammunition - 6 SGAPD. Initially, the West PU data were perceived as launchers for vertical launch CBRC "Pomegranate" / SS-N-21 SAMPSON.
SGAPD: MG-74 "corundum-2" MG-104 "Throw" MG-114 "Beryl"

Replacement liner-launcher SGAPD "barrier" and SGAPD MG-104 "Throw" (magazine "Shipbuilding", http://forums.airbase.ru )
MANPADS "Strela-3" or "Eagle" - 3 CP, 12 missiles.

Hydroacoustic equipment and CICS: 

CICS IDP-132 (?) "Omnibus" CRI design "Agate". On PLA pr.971M K-335 "Cheetah" - "Omnibus-U".
Sonar system (SJC) CIM-540 "Skate 3" SHARK GILL with digital processing of information developed by CRI "Morphyspribor", St. Petersburg, chief designer Kakalia VA Research conducted since 1980 on the basis of the CIM-500 "Scat". In terms of features HOOK CIM-540 is not inferior to American counterparts - the SJC upgraded AN / BQQ-5 and AN / BQQ-6. Final test equipment SJC held in 1986-1987 gg in the Sea of Japan and completed only in 1988 (PLA K-284 "Shark" pr.971 AKULA):
- commissioning and factory testing of the prototype at the head HOOK TO PLA-284 - 1985-1986
- state test pilot SJC sample including in ocean conditions - 1986-1987 gg
- SJC refinement and testing of the marine environment - in 1988
- due diligence fighting properties submarines - 1988 In the second series of PLA - planned to be built after the K-335 "Cheetah" was supposed to lead modernization of the SJC. The composition of the SJC:
1. The equipment of general purpose with the information on the control panel;
2. Equipment shumopelengovaniya in the audio frequency range and equipment ehopelengovaniya (sonar);
- The device №1 - bow passive-active sonar search and attack (SHARK GILL), operating at medium and low frequencies; fairing main antenna HOOK - beznaborny fiberglass.
- 2 x onboard conformal antenna "Shark" great length;

Layout device №1 HOOK CIM-540 "Skate 3" / SHARL GILL ( http://submarine.su )
4. Hardware detection sonar signals working sonar (sonar exploration) with ASG ASG detect enemy MG-70 (common designation MT-70 - doubtful);
5. Equipment sonar communication and state identification CIM-80;
6. Subsystem №6 - shumopelengovaniya equipment at low frequencies using towed extended antenna MGBS-541 "Skate 3" (located in the nacelle fairing-OLA-1-3 on the upper vertical handlebar).
7. Apparatus classification purposes using a digital library of noise; Research "Basis", "Melody", "method", "Cape", "Signal" held CRI "Morphyspribor" in 1979-1987 gg At the same time, the SJC CIM-540 solved the problem of classification for purposes of information from all subsystems of the SJC;
8. Equipment for the control of the complex.
In addition, together with a set of work following the CEO:
- GAS minoiskaniya MG-519 "Harp-M"
- GAS measuring the speed of sound in water MG-543 "reflector" or "tow-M" (?)
- GAS determine the start of the propeller cavitation MG-512 "Screw-M"
- Eholedomer MG-518 "North-M"
- Navigation in ice detector fractures NOR-1
- Navigation detector circular NOC-1
The detection range of the SJC is 3 times the detection range of the SJC PLA 2nd generation. 
Detection range - 220-230 km (according to various sources)
Number of simultaneously tracked sonar goals - 30

The main passive antenna HOOK CIM-540 "Skate 3" SHARK GILL PLA pr.971 ( http://paralay.iboards.ru )
pr.971I "Irbis" Improved AKULA (K-152 "Nerpa") - CICS 'Omnibus-E "HOOK" Skate 3 "export version (have the same setup data CIM-400ME-3 with an antenna HOOK" Skat- 3 ", but these were considered equivocal).
Remote control HOOK on submarines K-152 "Nerpa" pr.971I ( http://paralay.iboards.ru )

During the renovation and modernization of the PLA "sperm whale" (Head №513) pr.971 at the Amur CVD is planned to replace the SJC to SJC "Coho". By the end of 2012 time frame for completion of repair boats are not clear ( source ).

Nonacoustic means:

submarine detection equipment and enemy ships to swirl - SOX (station detection wake) OLS 200-1 "Toucan". Equipment SOX fixed parameters of vessel traffic and submarines for approximately 30 minutes to a few hours after the passage. Installed on boats since the K-322 (serial №513) standard OLS 200-1 "Toucan". On PLA K-480 "Bars" is set sample device SOX OLS 200 "Toucan" with protective petals. On PLA K-461 and K-328 device SOX missing (most likely in the construction of submarines was not complete, it was planned to put in the middle of repair). On PLA K-152 "Nerpa" SOX is not imposed in connection with the export destination of the ship.
Sensors SOX OLS 200 "Toucan" on the superstructure and a fence cutting submarines K-157 "Wild Boar" pr.971 AKULA-II
SOX sensors on the vertical panel PL pr.671RTM VICTOR-III (possibly OLS 100 "Kolos", not earlier chronicles frame 1982 from the documentary "The impact force. Underwater Hunter", ORT, 2007-2008 )
Radar equipment:

radar "Radian" / SNOOP PAIR MRKP-58 or "Radian-U" ("simplified") MRKP-59 with one antenna (since PLA K-461 / zav.№831, Sevmash and K-295 / zav.№517, SZLK).

NamemodificationRadar MRKP-58Radar MRKP-59Note
K-284 (zav.№501)pr.971 AKULAthere is-
K-263 (zav.№502)pr.971 AKULAthere is-
K-322 (zav.№513)pr.971 AKULAthere is- 
K-480 (zav.№821)pr.971 AKULA-is there?may be replaced with MRKP-59 during operation can be test (?)
K-391 (zav.№514)pr.971 AKULAthere is- 
K-317 (zav.№822)pr.971 AKULAthere is- 
K-331 (zav.№515)pr.971 AKULAthere is- 
K-461 (zav.№831)pr.971 Improved AKULA-there is 
K-328 (zav.№832)pr.971 Improved AKULA-there is 
K-154 (zav.№833)pr.971 Improved AKULA-there is 
K-419 (zav.№516)pr.971 Improved AKULAis there?  
K-295 (zav.№517)pr.971 Improved AKULA-there is 
K-157 (zav.№834)pr.971 AKULA-II-there is 
K-335 (zav.№835)pr.971 AKULA-III-there is 
K-152 (zav.№518)pr.971I Improved AKULA ? 

Radar antenna post "Radian" MRKP-58 SNOOP PAIR (file photo AndreyKS, http://forums.airbase.ru )

EW system "Bay"
radar gosopoznavaniya "Nichrome-M" / AMBER LIGHT
finder "Zone" / RIM HAT

Other Systems :
Automated complex system of technical means of PLA.
Inertial navigation complex "Symphony-071" (K-284, K-253, K-322 as a minimum) with girokorrektorom "Scandium" and onboard computer or complex "Symphony-U" (possibly submarines K-335 "Cheetah"?). Perhaps prototype or research on the topic of which was developed complex was called "Bear-971" (found in the media). Maximum storage time navigation data to ensure the specified accuracy of navigation - more than 7 days (underwater without determining the place). One of the best results on the accuracy of NK received in 2002 during the military service submarines K-295 - for 6.5 days in a submerged position with no fixed position error does not exceed 10 submarines cables (1852 m). The main mode of the navigation system - "Special".
Satellite navigation system "Synthesis".

Automated complex radio "Lightning-MC" / KREMMNY-3, including: 
- Satellite communication system "Tsunami-BM" towed antenna - unit K-659 "Hall" (located in the superstructure for cutting fenced)
- Antenna and telecommunication system "Bark" / PERT SPRING
- VHF "Anis" / PARK LAMP
- Radio station R-790 (different versions), R-143, R-855UM (3 sets), P-159 (6 sets), the product P-405, "Call", "Berth" (3 sets), the P-105M (data not accurate, completing submarine pr.971 AKULA first edition). Emergency signal buoy B-600-1.

Optical sightseeing TV system MTC-110 (allows optical observation at depths of up to 50-60 m). Periscopes commander PZKE-11 or PZKE-21 (according to various sources) "The Swan" and astro-navigational periscope "Signal-3."

Fencing cutting and sliding devices on the submarine K-157 pr.971 "Wild Boar" AKULA-II (bottom model, author - Kuznetsov AF, Severodvinsk).

Towed unit K-659 "Hall" ( http://forums.airbase.ru )  

pr.971 / 09710 "Bars" / "Pike-B" - AKULA (1984) - the basic design of the PLA (K-284, K-263, K-322, K-391, K-331, K-480, K-317, K-461). Boats can be divided into several subclasses:

K-284 (zav.№501)pr.971 / 09710 AKULAbase---headache
K-263 (zav.№502)pr.971 / 09710 AKULAbase---1st serial
K-322 (zav.№513)pr.971 / 09710 AKULAreducedthere is-- 
K-480 (zav.№821)pr.971 / 09710 AKULAreducedthere is--SOX-protected
K-391 (zav.№514)pr.971 / 09710 AKULAreducedthere isthere isthere is 
K-317 (zav.№822)pr.971 / 09710 AKULAfulfilled
the requirements of the Navy
there isthere isthere is 
K-331 "Magadan" (zav.№515)pr.971 / 09710 AKULAfulfilled
the requirements of the Navy
there isthere isthere is 

pr.971 - Improved AKULA (1992) - Transition project PLA with improved hydroacoustic characteristics and updated avionics, according to some sources, the official name of the project has not changed (K-328, K-154, K-419, K-295). In the Western media meets the name of "pr.971U."

K-461 "Wolf" (zav.№831)pr.971
Improved AKULA
piece of equipment with the VAC-80-there isthere isa new system EHRV (see above)
K-328 (zav.№832)pr.971
Improved AKULA
piece of equipment with the VAC-80-there isthere isa new system EHRV (see above)
K-154 "Tiger" (zav.№833)pr.971
Improved AKULA
piece of equipment with the VAC-80, tougher requirementsthere isthere isthere isa new system EHRV (see above)
K-419 (zav.№516)pr.971
Improved AKULA
?there isthere isthere is?
K-295 (zav.№517)pr.971
Improved AKULA
piece of equipment with the VAC-80, tougher requirementsthere isthere isthere isa new system EHRV (see above)

PLA K-461 "Wolf" pr.971 Improved AKULA in the Kola Bay. Northern Fleet, March 2001 (Photo by Ilya Kurganova,http://www.submarines.narod.ru ). Presumably PLA K-154 "Tiger" (zav.№833) pr.971 - Improved AKULA ( http: // forums.airbase.ru ). K-154 "Tiger" (zav.№833) pr.971 - Improved AKULA about PLA carrier midget submarine "Orenburg" in the Deer Bay, photo 1 and 5 June 2005 (author photo - Den, http://fotki.yandex.ru ). K-154 "Tiger" (zav.№833) pr.971 - Improved AKULA there in 2010. At the PLA probably dismantled sensors SOX or part of the sensors (photo from alex1976 archive, http://forums.airbase.ru ).

pr.971 / pr.971U (?) - AKULA-II
 (1995) - a transition project with the modified PLA (longer than 3 m) for the installation of new equipment, rugged, according to some sources, the official name of the project has not changed. According to the project at "Sevmash" built only PLA - K-157 "Wild Boar". Structurally and compositionally equipment complies with Class submarines AKULA-III, but without changing the shape of the fence and sliding devices fairing towed sonar. Active equipment installed to reduce the acoustic signature of PLA (probably SAG - a system of active noise suppression in the range 50-500Gts). In the Western media meets the name of "pr.971A."

PLA K-157 "Wild Boar" pr.971 AKULA-II in Motovka Gulf. Northern Fleet, June 1998 (Photo by Ilya Kurganova,http://www.submarines.narod.ru ) 
pr.971 / pr.971M (?) - AKULA-III (2001) - it was assumed that the project will place large-scale "second pillar" of PLA project with a more modern avionics, modified fairing container towed antenna HOOK and other construction fences logging in part of the interface with the body of PLA. At "Sevmash" project built only PLA K-335 "Cheetah". According to some sources, the official name of the project is also not changed (pr.971). 

PLA K-335 "Cheetah" pr.971M AKULA-III in front of shop №50 by "Sevmash", October 1999, Severodvinsk (photo - C.Kundyvus, PO "Sevmash", http: //forums.airbase. RU ).

PLA K-335 "Cheetah" pr.971 AKULA-III in Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea in the sea trials. Northern Fleet, July 2001 (photo by Ilya Kurganova, http://www.submarines.narod.ru ) 
PLA K-335 "Cheetah" pr.971 AKULA-III in the Dvina Bay. Northern Fleet, July 2001 (photo by Ilya Kurganova,http://www.submarines.narod.ru/ ) 
pr.971I / 09719 "Irbis" - Improved AKULA  (2009) - modification of PLA pr.971 for the Indian Navy (K-152 "Nerpa"). According to media reports - "with unclassified composition of avionics" export version of the SJC "Skate 3" - on the boat are no starters GSPC and SOX system. Transferred to the Russian Navy 28.12.2009 transmission PLA Navy held in India in 2012

PLA K-152 "Nerpa" pr.971I - Improved AKULA during tests of 31.10.2008 (file photo tsonyo, http://forums.airbase.ru ). PLA Chakra / K-152 "Nerpa" pr. 971I - Improved AKULA on the way to India, the end of March 2012 ( http://www.militaryphotos.net ). PLA Chakra / K-152 "Nerpa" pr.971I - Improved AKULA on the way to India, the end of March 2012 . ( http://www.militaryphotos.net ).


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